## Corona

[vc_row][vc_column width=”2/3″][vc_column_text]

## Contents

• Introduction
• Theory of corona formation
• Factors Affecting Corona
• Methods Of Reducing Corona Effect
1. Introduction

When an alternating potential difference is applied across two conductors whose spacing is large as compared to their diameters, there is no apparent change in the condition of atmospheric air surrounding the wires if the applied voltage is low. However, when the applied voltage exceeds a certain value, called critical disruptive voltage, the conductors are surrounded by a faint violet glow called CORONA.

The phenomenon of corona is accompanied by a hissing sound, production of ozone, power loss and radio interference.  The higher the voltage is raised, the larger and higher the luminous envelope becomes, and greater are the sound, the power loss and the radio noise.  If the applied voltage is increased to breakdown value, a flash-over will occur between the conductors due to the breakdown of air insulation.

 The phenomenon of violet glow, hissing noise and production of ozone gas in an overhead transmission line is known as corona.

If the conductors are polished and smooth, the corona glow will be uniform throughout the length of the conductors, otherwise the rough points will appear brighter. With DC voltage, there is difference in the appearance of the two wires. The positive wire has uniform glow about it, while the negative conductor has spotty glow.

1. Theory of corona formation

Some ionisation is always present in air due to cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiations and radioactivity. Therefore, under normal conditions, the air around the conductors contains some ionised particles (i.e., free electrons and +ve ions) and neutral molecules.

• When d. is applied between the conductors, potential gradient is set up in the air which will have maximum value at the conductor surfaces.
• Under the influence of potential gradient, the existing free electrons acquire greater velocities.
• The greater the applied voltage, the greater the potential gradient and more is the velocity of free electrons.
• When the potential gradient at the conductor surface reaches about 30 kV per cm (max. value), the velocity acquired by the free electrons is sufficient to strike a neutral molecule with enough force to dislodge one or more electrons from it.
• This produces another ion and one or more free electrons, which is turn are accelerated until they collide with other neutral molecules, thus producing other ions.
• Thus, the process of ionisation is cummulative.

The result of this ionisation is that either corona is formed or spark takes place between the conductors.

1. Factors Affecting Corona

The phenomenon of corona is affected by the physical state of the atmosphere as well as by the conditions of the line. The following are the factors upon which corona depends: –

(i) Atmosphere: –

As corona is formed due to ionisation of air surrounding the conductors, therefore, it is affected by the physical state of atmosphere.  In the stormy weather, the number of ions is more than normal and as such corona occurs at much less voltage as compared with fair weather.

(ii) Conductor size: –

The corona effect depends upon the shape and conditions of the conductors. The rough and irregular surface will give rise to more corona because unevenness of the surface decreases the value of breakdown voltage. Thus a stranded conductor has irregular surface and hence gives rise to more corona that a solid conductor.

(iii) Spacing between conductors: –

If the spacing between the conductors is made very large as compared to their diameters, there may not be any corona effect. It is because larger distance between conductors reduces the electro-static stresses at the conductor surface, thus avoiding corona formation.

(iv) Line voltage: –

The line voltage greatly affects corona.  If it is low, there is no change in the condition of air surrounding the conductors and hence no corona is formed.  However, if the line voltage has such a value that electrostatic stresses developed at the conductor surface make the air around the conductor conducting, then corona is formed.

(i) Due to corona formation, the air surrounding the conductor becomes conducting and hence virtual diameter of the conductor is increased.  The increased diameter reduces the electrostatic stresses between the conductors.

(ii) Corona reduces the effects of transients produced by surges.

(i) Corona is accompanied by a loss of energy. This affects the transmission efficiency of the line.

(ii) Ozone is produced by corona and may cause corrosion of the conductor due to chemical action.

(iii) The current drawn by the line due to corona is non-sinusoidal and hence non-sinusoidal voltage drop occurs in the line. This may cause inductive interference with neighbouring communication lines.

1. Methods Of Reducing Corona Effect

It has been seen that intense corona effects are observed at a working voltage of 33 kV or above. Therefore, careful design should be made to avoid corona on the sub-stations or bus-bars rated for 33 kV and higher voltages otherwise highly ionised air may cause flash-over in the insulators or between the phases, causing considerable damage to the equipment.  The corona effects can be reduced by the following methods:

(i)By increasing conductor size: –

By increasing conductor size, the voltage at which corona occurs is raised and hence corona effects are considerably reduced.  This is one of the reasons that ACSR conductors which have a larger cross-sectional area are used in transmission lines.

(ii) By increasing conductor spacing: –

By increasing the spacing between conductors, the voltage at which corona occurs is raised and hence corona effects can be eliminated.  However, spacing cannot be increased too much otherwise the cost of supporting structure (e.g., bigger cross arms and supports) may increase to a considerable extent.

## Reference: –

“Power system” by V.K. Mehta.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/3″][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”2/3″][vc_column_text]AUTHORS
1.Bunty B. Bommera
2.Dakshata U. Kamble[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/3″][/vc_column][/vc_row]