Error is defined as the difference between the true value of a certain quantity and the measured quantity.
Errors also have different categories: –
- GROSS ERROR: –
- These errors are made by humans while taking various readings in same experiment.
- These errors are obtained because of improper adjustments of instruments in the circuit and also observing the readings in the instrument in a wrong manner.
- These errors can only be minimized by using proper observation ways.
- The handling of instruments must be proper.
- The readings must be taken for three times atleast and by taking the average of the three readings we can get the actual reading given the instrument.
- SYSTEMATIC ERRORS: –
The defective instrument or the instrument which is handled in various effects of environment gives wrong readings. This type of error comes under systematic error. The systematic error has three types: –
2.1 Instrumental Errors: –
Instrumental errors are those errors occurred due to the defect in the instrument. These errors can be minimized just by replacing the instrument with a new one. These types of error also occur due to wrong selection of ranges and due to improper handling of instrument.
- These errors can be minimized by
- Calibrating the equipment with a standard one.
- Using proper factors for the calculation of various values.
- Proper handling of instrument
2.2 Observational Error: –
- These errors occur due to the observer itself.
- The improper observation while taking readings results in a huge error.
- The instrument while observing the readings must take the readings standing infront the scale of the instrument.
- This type of error mostly occurs while handling analog instruments, since they employ a scale due to which the observer may get confused how to observe the readings carefully.
- This error can be minimized only by knowing how to take proper readings.
2.3 Environmental Errors:-
- These errors occur due to operation of instruments in various temperature ranges due to which the instrument is not suitable to measure properly.
- The instrument which works properly at room temperature may give false readings when it is made to work at zero degree centigrade temperature.
- This error can be minimized by using the instrument in a proper range in which it is suitable.
Adapted from ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION by H S KALSI