Types Of Lamps

[vc_row][vc_column width=”2/3″][vc_column_text]Energy conservation is becoming more and more of a concern. One solution is to use more energy efficient bulbs at home, schools, businesses and public places.

Key Terms:

  • Watt (abbreviated W) is the unit corresponding to the rate of energy consumption (or power) in an electric circuit needed in this case to light a light bulb.
  • Lumens are the unit describing the amount of light (energy) as seen by the human eye that is given off by the light bulb.
  • Lux is defined as being equivalent to one lumen spread over an area of one square meter. To put it another way, a measurement of lux (light intensity) tells you how many lumens are needed for the area being illuminated.
  • Efficiency is the amount of light that comes out of a light bulb compared to the electrical energy that goes into it. Energy efficient bulbs waste less energy in producing light than less efficient bulbs. Efficiency is an output over an input.
  • Efficacy is related to the efficiency of the light bulb. It is also an output over an input. The output is the lumens of light and the input in power in watts. So, the expression we use to describe the efficacy of our light is “Lumens Per Watt” or lumens divided by watts. Keep in mind, the bigger the efficacy, the more efficient the bulb.
  • Some bulbs make things they are illuminating look a different color than they really are. This property is called Color Rendition. Generally, bulbs with good color rendition are used. Color rendition can be measured by the Color Rendering Index1 (CRI), which is a scale ranging from 0 (very poor color rendition) to 100 (nearly perfect color rendition). In cases of extremely poor color rendition, that bulb’s CRI value can be negative. Incandescent bulbs are defined to have perfect color rendition.

Indoor Lighting

Some of the most common indoor light bulbs are incandescent bulbs, which look like a traditional light bulb. Generally, the input for these bulbs is either 40W or 60W. But there are other kinds of indoor light bulbs as well, such as CFLs and LEDs. Keep in mind that the wattages listed for the CFLs and LEDs correspond to the 40W and 60W incandescent bulbs. This means that for a lamp that takes a 40W incandescent, you could also use a 9W CFL or a 6W LED. This will allow you to easily compare the bulbs to one another.

Incandescent Bulbs:

  • The incandescent light bulb has had the same design for over 100 years since Thomas Edison invented it!
  • It produces light when a thin wire called a tungsten filament is heated by electricity running through it making it so hot that it starts to glow brightly.
  • This releases a lot of heat and the bulbs get hot to the touch, meaning this bulb is very inefficient.
  • Many countries, including the United States, are currently passing legislation banning the sale of these light bulbs because they are so inefficient.

CRI: 100

Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFL):

  • These spiraled light bulbs are far more efficient than the standard incandescent bulb.
  • Compact Fluorescent Light bulbs (CFLs) work by running electricity through gas inside the coils, exciting that gas, and producing light.
  • There is a coating on the spirals, which makes this light white.
  • These bulbs do not get nearly as hot as the incandescent bulbs.

CRI: 50-80

Light Emitting Diode (LED):

  • Unlike incandescent and CFL bulbs, LED bulbs have moved into the technological age.
  • LEDs that produce white light work in a rather complicated way, and their invention won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014!
  • While these are the most efficient bulbs to date, they are not without problems.
  • Although the light they produce looks white, remember that white light contains all the colors of the rainbow.
  • LEDs contain a lot of blue light, too much of which can have negative effects on human health and wildlife.

CRI: 80-98

Outdoor Lighting

Outdoor lights are usually different from those bulbs used indoors because they need to be much brighter and last longer. There are many different kinds of light bulbs used outdoors, and they each have pros and cons.

Halogen Bulbs:

  • Halogen bulbs are often found in homes as spotlights or floodlights, in cars as headlights, or at sports fields as stadium lights.
  • These bulbs work in a similar way to an incandescent bulb by running electricity through a tungsten filament.
  • Unlike the incandescent, there is halogen gas inside the bulb.
  • When the tungsten burns off the filament, the gas re-deposits it back onto the filament to be reused.
  • Halogen bulbs last much longer than incandescent, but these bulbs are much brighter and burn much hotter than traditional incandescent bulbs.

CRI: 100

Metal Halide:

  • Metal halide lamps are commonly used in streetlights, parking lot lights, and stadium lights.
  • They are very bright and contribute to a lot of light pollution.
  • They are fairly efficient.
  • They produce very white light and have good color rendition, meaning that objects under these lights look their true color.

CRI: 85-94

High Pressure Sodium (HPS):

  • The high pressure sodium lamp (HPS) is the most commonly used street light throughout the world.
  • It produces light by running electricity through a mixture of gases, which produces light.
  • The lamp itself is preferred because it requires little maintenance.
  • These lamps are fairly efficient.
  • They take a while to turn on completely and produce a yellow-orange glow.

CRI: 20-24

Low Pressure Sodium (LPS):

  • The low pressure sodium (LPS) lamp works similarly to the HPS light.
  • Instead of producing white light (all the colors of the rainbow), LPS lamps produce almost exclusively yellow light.
  • While this light is fairly efficient, it takes several minutes for the bulb to turn on.
  • The light is very yellow-orange.
  • This yellow light makes objects it is illuminating look a different color or gray.

CRI: -44

LED Street Lamps:

  • LED technologies have developed rapidly in recent years and these bulbs are now being integrated into outdoor lighting solutions.
  • While the energy savings are significant, LEDs produce a lot of blue light, too much of which can have negative effects on human health and wildlife.

CRI: 80-98

Phosphor-Converted Amber (PCA) LED Street Lamps:

  • PCALEDs have only been on the market for the past few years.
  • They use very little energy and have good color rendition, but are still rather expensive.
  • Some cities have already installed these lights on their streets.

CRI: >80

Narrow-Band Amber (NBA) LED Street Lamps:

  • Narrow-band amber (NBA) LED Street lights are a brand new technology.
  • Rather than emitting all the colors of the rainbow and a lot of blue light, they emit mostly in the yellow.
  • They still have good color rendition, meaning that they do not make things look grey like LPS lamps do.
  • Because this technology is so new, these bulbs are not widely available and as such, are still expensive.
  • They are very efficient.

CRI: 67

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/3″][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”2/3″][vc_column_text]AUTHORS
1.Bunty B. Bommera
2.Dakshata U. Kamble[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/3″][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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